}

Σάββατο, 31 Οκτωβρίου 2015

TIPS FOR WRITING



Writing Powerful Introductions


When you write, what's the best way to begin? Many students start with a simple sentence, such as "I will write about my hometown", or they use no special introduction at all. Here are six ways to write better introductions.
1) Write about a problem

Everybody has problems! Most of our energy each day is spent trying to solve problems. By starting your writing with a problem, you automatically hook your readers into searching for a solution. Your readers will start to think about how they might solve the problem or wonder what solution you have in mind. But be careful not to take too much time on the problem itself. This is an introduction, not the body of your writing.

2) Write about a story or start with a joke

A very brief story or joke that illustrates your main idea can also hook the reader. Use clear details and vivid descriptions to appeal to your readers' senses and emotions. For example, if you want your readers to give up smoking, describe the painful effects of an elderly person who is unable to stop coughing, unable to breathe freely. If you are writing about an interesting place, describe what the readers would see, what they would hear, what they would taste, so that they can almost feel they are there. A joke, if it really fits the topic, can also make your readers more receptive to your ideas. Look at How to Tell Jokes for a simple way to remember jokes and stories.

3) Start with a question

This is one of the easiest ways to begin writing. However, be careful not to use questions that are too simple. If everyone already knows the answer, they will not be interested in what you write next. Remember, you have to make them think! "Do you like to eat?" is not very interesting. However, "Have you ever spent more than $100 dollars on one meal?" will make your readers start dreaming!

4) Write a bold statement or use an interesting statistic

If you begin with something like, "In the United States, fifty percent of all marriages end in divorce!", your readers will want to know your point of view on this topic. You can look up statistics on the Internet for just about any topic, so go to it!

5) Start with a quote from an important person

This kind of introduction has two advantages. As with the other ways, it gets your readers to think about what you will say next. In addition, the words of important people have the ability to persuade many people. "If Bill Gates said it, it's probably true", many people will think.

6) Write about necessary background information

This is not a very interesting way to begin, but sometimes it's necessary to help your readers before you begin. Some topics will be too difficult for readers to follow without some help, so you may have to provide basic information first. If possible, try to write about this information using one of the five opening techniques above!

Write Perfect Paragraphs with the PREP Method


P: Start with the main POINT of your paragraph

The first sentence is usually called a "topic sentence". Simply state whatever the topic is. Try to start with an interesting sentences. Instead of saying "Joe is a teacher", say "Joe is one of the best English teachers in the history of the world!". 


R: Give the REASON why you believe this

Next, write why you think so. You might write, "Students need a kind teacher to guide them, so they always move in the right direction and don't waste time." You might also try to link this sentence to the next one, to help make a smoother "transition". 


E: Give an EXAMPLE to support your belief

Find an example, or maybe two. This will "paint a word picture" in your readers' minds, which they will remember long after they finish reading. "I never listened to English much before I heard of Teacher Joe, but now I listen to his jokes, sayings and dictations. Listening has helped me improve my speaking ability in English, and now I'm moving up to a better job." Sounds great, doesn't it? 


P: Repeat your POINT one more time

Your readers will often remember the last thing you write more than anything else. If you can, try to use different words to say the same thing. "Joe has helped tens of thousands of students learn to listen to English. He deserves the title of 'Super Teacher' more than anyone I have ever met."
Finally, put it all together

Joe is one of the best English teachers I have ever met. I think all students need a kind teacher to guide them, so they can always move in the right direction. I never listened to English much before I heard of Teacher Joe, but now I listen to his jokes, sayings and dictations. Listening has helped me improve my speaking ability in English, and now I'm moving up to a better job. Joe has helped tens of thousands of students learn English. He deserves the title of 'Super Teacher' .


To Write Better English Sentences, Be Specific

Sample Sentence One:

a) "There is a man over there." 

Many of my students write sentences like this while preparing for the IELTS writing test. Unfortunately, this sentence tells us nothing about the man or where he is. Here is a slightly improved sentence: 

b) "A tall man is standing next to the car." 

Depending on the situation, you could add many more details. For example: 

c) "A tall man wearing a dark suit is standing with his arms folded next to an old, red taxi." 

This sentence communicates much more to the reader and shows that you know how to really use English well. 


Sample Sentence Two:

a) "I was very tired." 

First, you could add the reason for being tired: 

b) "I am always tired after work." 

Next, be more specific about how long you had to work: 

c) "I always feel tired after working from 9 in the morning until 10 at night." 

Isn't sentence "C" much better than sentence "A"? Remember, when you write, you are trying to communicate. These specific details are what communicate information to your reader. 


Sample Sentence Three:

a) "Can you come?" 

Again, you can answer the basic questions "When" and "Where": 

b) "Can you come to my office tomorow morning?" 

Of course, you can be even more specific with the time: 

c) "Can you come to my office tomorrow morning between 9:30 and 10 o'clock?" 

And finally, you could add "Why": 

d) "Can you come to my office tomorrow morning between 9:30 and 10 o'clock so that I can give you the information you wanted?" 


Remember This!

When you are writing, always remember to answer the basic questions in detail: 

Who? What? When? Where? Why? and How?


How to Write Memorable Conclusions

When people are given a list of things to memorize, researchers found that they best remember items at the beginning and end of the list. It is the same way when people read. If you have a strong conclusion, people are more likely to remember your main message. Here are some suggestions on how to write memorable conclusions.
1) Use a broad statement to summarize your main idea
If you are writing about the environment, for example, you could end with a broad statement such as, "It's up to us to protect the environment because, after all, we only have one world".
2) End with a quotation
If you are writing about dealing with stress, you could conclude this way: "Remember the old saying, 'all work and no play makes Teacher Joe a dull boy'". As this example shows, you can adapt the quotation to fit the situation.
3) Express your hopes for the future
"My hope is that in ten years, we will no longer have to see newspaper stories about young children who cannot afford to get an education", would be a good way to end a paper on providing financial aid to poor families.
4) Use a question
As with introductions, questions are a good way to burn an idea into your readers' brains. "If we can go to the moon, why can't we go to Mars, too?", will focus readers' attention on the reasons you wrote about in the body of your paper.
5) Call for action!
This is one of the most common ways to conclude. Don't be shy about asking for some kind of response. "If you agree with me, then go out and volunteer" or "Take some time to analyze your diet to see how many calories you could easily do without", are two examples. Asking people to volunteer to help others or do something to help themselves is a powerful way to get them to think deeply about your suggestions.
So, do you think you could apply any of the ideas above? Bookmark this page now, so the next time you have to write something, you can come back here and try one of these ideas! 
Sample Compositions with Corrections

from 
Learn English with Teacher Joe!

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